Key outcomes of the UN Biodiversity Conference
The second phase of the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) was successfully held in Montreal, Canada, on 20 December local time.
The following are the main outcomes of the second phase of COP15.
1. 62 decisions were adopted by the meeting. Nearly 40 parties and stakeholders announced a series of major actions and commitments.
2. The Conference adopted a historic “framework” outcome document. This is an ambitious, balanced, pragmatic, effective, robust and transformative package of solutions that will guide all parties to work together to halt and reverse biodiversity loss and put biodiversity on the path to recovery for the benefit of all.
3.The six most significant documents were adopted on 19th. They are: (1) the Framework, (2) the Framework’s monitoring framework, (3) Digital Sequence Information (DSI) on genetic resources, (4) resource mobilization, (5) capacity building, development and scientific and technical cooperation, (6) and the planning, monitoring, reporting and review mechanism.
4. The Framework establishes four long-term goals to 2050 and 23 action goals to 2030, historically incorporates a pathway for the implementation of DSI, historically decides to establish a Framework Fund, and historically maps out a vision of living in harmony with nature in 2050.
The issue of DSI benefit-sharing is a major conflict between developed and developing countries, and has been one of the core issues in the negotiations between the Parties. The Conference has historically included DSI in the Framework process and provided a roadmap for the next steps to promote greater benefit sharing from DSI by 2030.
In terms of financial resource mobilisation, the Framework calls for the GEF to establish a Global Biodiversity Framework Fund as soon as possible in 2023 to support the implementation of the Framework through a special trust fund until 2030. “The Framework calls for developed countries to provide US$20 billion per year by 2025 and US$30 billion per year by 2030 to developing countries for biodiversity conservation, and proposes to mobilise US$200 billion per year by 2030 from various sources, including official development assistance, financial institutions and the private sector.
5. The Framework sets a ‘3030’ target to conserve at least 30% of the world’s land and oceans by 2030. The Aichi Targets, adopted in 2010, aim to conserve 17% of the land and 10% of the oceans by 2020. With the exception of a few countries, most have not met this target.
6. The Framework’s targets for action by 2030 also include restoring 30% of degraded ecosystem areas, halving the introduction of invasive alien species, halving the use of high-risk chemicals, halving global food waste, etc.